Fictitious make

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One, summarize since 70 time, world market evolves into dynamic and changeful feature stage by stage by conventional in the past relative stability, evolve into the competition inside global limits by the local competition in the past; Between course of study of person of the same trade, cross an industry to be permeated between each other, mutual competition is stimulated increasingly. Change prompt market demand for comfortable meet an emergency, to enhance competition ability, contemporary production company must solve TQCS difficult problem, namely with the fastest appear on the market speed (T- - Time To Market) , best quality (Q- - Quality) , lowermost cost (C- - Cost) , best service (S- - the demand that Service) will come to satisfy different customer. Meanwhile, IT obtained rapid development, especially computer technology, computer network technology, information processing technology obtained people expect to be less than progress. The practice that comes more than 20 years proves, apply IT at manufacturing industry, undertake those who pass all manufacturing industry transform, it is the only way that modern manufacturing industry develops. At the beginning of 80 time, the CIMS that advanced production technology makes core with information market (CIMS, computer Integrated Manufacturing System) begins to get executive; 80 time end, the collateral project that becomes nucleus with process market (CE, cocurrent Engineering) technology rose to make a standard further; Enter 90 age, advanced production technology develops to higher level further, appeared fictitious make (VM, profit of Virtual Manufacturing) , seed is produced (LP, lean Production) , nimble make (AM, agile Manufacturing) , dummy company (VE, the new idea such as Virtual Enterprise) . In these a lot of new ideas, "Fictitious make " the wide attention that caused people, be in not only bound of science and technology, and in business circles, become one of heat of research. The reason depends on, although fictitious production occurrence has a few years of short time only, but it showed immediately however to the revolutionary influence of manufacturing industry come out. Typical case has Boeing 777, its are overall test of design, component, overall assemble and the trial flight below all sorts of environments all is completed on the computer, make its development cycle 8 years from in the past time shortens. The QUEST that uses Dench Robotics development like Perot System Team again and IGRIP design and carry out a product line, before all equipment order goods, undertook to each respect such as the kinematic, kinetic, process capability of product line analysis and quite, make the executive cycle of product line shortens from 24 traditional months 9.

In May. The fictitious production environment of Chrycler company and IBM joint development uses the development of Yu Jixin car, before model car is produced, the control etc that discovers its location system a lot of design flaw, shortened development is periodic. Accordingly, in last few years, industrial developed country all exert oneself at fictitious production research and application. Be in the United States, NIST (National Institute Of Standards And Technology) is building fictitious production environment (say for the country National Advanced Manufacturing Testbed of bed of advanced production test, NAMT) , boeing company and wheat road company built MDA(Mechanical Design Automation) together, be in Germany, institute of graph of computer of Fraunhofer of Darmstatt technology university, waterloo university of Canada, belgian virtual reality consortium all established a research organization early or late, begin the research of fictitious production technology. As a result of " fictitious make " the concept appears just a few years of time, still lack the height that produces whole process from the product to begin the systematic research of fictitious production technology at present. For example, fictitious what is production intention? Does it bear with what crucial technology? How to build volume product research, design, craft, make, is standard, resource shared, is the technology shared, is information delivered, does market demand, system control the fictitious production environment at an organic whole? These remain the issue that researcher of world each country is studying and discusses. The article " fictitious make " connotation. Involve crucial technology to undertake discussing, put forward to support a product to produce the frame of the fictitious production platform of whole process and architecture. 2, fictitious the place before production definition is like is narrated, "Fictitious make " be a kind when put forward above all by the United States in last few years brand-new concept. What is fictitious make? What content does it include? These remain the problem of people discussion up to now. Ceng Weixu of a lot of people plans to make have a definition, have quite representative have: Florida university Gloria J.

The definition of Wiens is: Fictitious making is a such concepts, namely with carry out production process actually on the computer euqally. Among them fictitious model is the potential problem that is used at reaching producibility to the function of the product before be made actually undertakes forecasting. This definition emphasizes VM " with actual and same " " fictitious model " and " forecast " , namely result of with a view to. The definition of lab of air force Wright is " fictitious making is to emulate, the integrated application that proposes model and analytic technology and tool, in order to enhance each production design and production decision-making with control. Should define method of with a view to. Another has representative definition give out by Maryland university Edward Lin&etc, "Fictitious making is one is used at increasing various and decision-making with pilot unifinication, omnibus production environment. " should define an environment of with a view to. Apparent, the aspect that afore-mentioned definitions emphasize is different, even also somebody thinks to not was necessary to have a kind of definition only. But to discuss and communicate, think generally, undertake to VM the definition is necessary. There is representative document integratedly on international at present, the article is right fictitious make if give a definition,give out: Fictitious making is the substaintial implementation that makes a process actually go up in the computer, use the computer to emulate namely with virtual reality technology, go up in the computer group of groups work in coordination, program of the design that realizes a product, technology, treatment is made, function analysis, quality inspection, and the substaintial process that the product such as the management of various process and control creates the company, in order to add strong production process various decision-making with control ability. Can see, "Fictitious make " although not be actual,make, but the substaintial process that comes true to be made actually however, it is through the computer fictitious model comes one kind imitate and beforehand the problem that each respect such as appraise product function, function and machinability may exist, those who raise people forecast and decision-making level, make production technology walks out of the narrow one's own little world that basically relies on experience, development arrived all-around the new level of forecast. Graph 1 brief expressed fictitious make with the connection that makes actually and distinction. With make actually compare, fictitious production main characteristic is: Product and production environment is fictitious model, products plan has to fictitious model on the computer, make, test, design personnel or user even but " enter " fictitious production environment examines its design, treatment, assemble and operate, and revise what do not rely on traditional archetypal prototype repeatedly; Still but the product that already will develop (component) deposit in the computer, not only charge of greatly economic storage, can change a design quickly according to user demand or vicissitude of the market more, throw batch production quickly, can reduce the development time of new product substantially thereby, improve quality, reduce cost; Can make distributing to be in in the different professional of different spot, different branch same work at the same time on product model, mutual communication, information is shared, reduce many documentation to make the time that reachs its to deliver and error, make product development answers vicissitude of the market with quick, high grade, low cost thereby. 3, fictitious if production intention will make a system actually (RMS, abstraction of Real Manufacturing System) is become by actual physics system (system of RPS) , real information (RIS) , control a system actually (RCS) comprises, OK and simple label is: RMS= { RPS, RIS, RCS } RPS includes all production physics entity, for example material, machine tool, robot, clamping apparatus, controller; RIS includes information processing and decision-making, if attemper, plan, design. RIS exchanges information through RCS and RPS. So, we are OK map of will effective production system at base the fictitious production system to fictitious production technology, fictitious production system can express to be: VMS= { VPS, VIS, VCS } , among them VPS is fictitious physics system, VIS is fictitious information system, VCS is virtual control system. According to concern with what produce each level, some document will be fictitious production cent becomes 3 kinds, what be core in order to design namely is fictitious make (what be core in order to produce is Design  Centered VM) , fictitious make (Production  Centered VM) and what be a center in order to control is fictitious make (Control  Centered VM) . What be core in order to design is fictitious make a production information introduce whole design process, use emulate will optimize products plan, for example DFX technology, through " make on the computer " generation a lot of " soft " prototype; What be core in order to produce is fictitious making is emulation skill is added in producing process model, will evaluate and actor or actress with this choose manufacturing process, for example organization and heavy organization technology; What be a center in order to control is fictitious making is to will be emulated in adding control model and actual processing, but " without seam " the ground is emulated make actual production is optimized. Fictitious make from go up to tell even if should use computer production to go out at all " fictitious product " , we see not hard, fictitious production technology is an interdisciplinary omnibus technology, it is involved emulate, visible, virtual reality, data is successive, optimize wait for a domain. However, the height that returns lack to produce whole process from the product at present is begun right fictitious production systematic research. This expression is in: Fictitious the information model that production base is program of product, technology and manufacturing system. Although international Organization for Standardization spent very big energy to develop product information model, but CAD developer has not use them; Although the research of technology program model already won a few progress and application, but integrated without a kind still, OK and compositive the technology program model at fictitious production platform; Produce systematic capacity and function model, and the research of its trends model and development need are strengthened further; Existing producibility assessment technique basically is to be aimed at component to make a process, the producibility assessment technique that faces a product to produce a course consequently needs to consider to develop, include the processing time of each technology measure, the estimation that produces cost and quality; The layout of production system, production plans and attempering is a very complex task, it needs substantial experience knowledge, the plan that supports manufacturing system and the fictitious production platform that move degree of program need to extend and be strengthened; Distributed environment, get used to the company cooperation that produces adroitly especially, information is shared, method and the technology such as information security need to consider and be developed, at the same time management course reframes methodological research also needs to strengthen; Fictitious production environment lacks unified compositive frame and system. 4, in light of the whole process that the fictitious production architecture of CIMSERC and environment produce from the product, "Fictitious make " should include a product " producibility " , " producibility " and " can cooperate quality " . support " alleged " producibility " the product that fastens design pointing to place (include spare parts, component and overall) machinability (cast, punch, solder, cutting) and can assemble a gender; And " producibility " the department points to there already was resource in the enterprise (broad sense resource, be like: Equipment, manpower, raw material) below tie condition, how to optimize production plans and attemper, in order to satisfy the requirement of the market or client; The empty development to production technology, fictitious make still answer mode be productioned by what analogy is 21 centuries " make adroitly " provide support, it is industry trends alliance namely (VE, of Virtual Enterprise) " can cooperate quality " provide support. And, 3 afore-mentioned sides are right of the mutual correlation for an enterprise, should form a compositive environment. Accordingly, should from 3 administrative levels, namely " fictitious make " , "Fictitious production " , "Dummy company " the fictitious production technology that develops product whole process and the research of its compositive fictitious production environment, include model of product complete information, support each administrative levels is fictitious production technology develops the corresponding platform that prop up, and support 3 platform and its compositive product data government (PDM) technology. Be based on afore-mentioned thoughts, research center of technology of national CIMS project asks according to what advanced production technology develops, beginning to build base of fictitious production research. This base built architecture of the following and fictitious production technology: This platform supports fictitious production platform program of the collateral design of the product, technology, treatment, assemble reach the process such as maintenance, undertake producibility (Manufacturability) is analysed (include estimation of function analysis, charge, the) such as man-hour estimation. It is the software of numerous emulation analysis that is a foundation with complete information model is compositive, include mechanical, thermodynamic, kinematic, kinetic wait for producibility analysis, have environment of the following research: Be based on product technology compound the products plan that change and analysis, besides the environment such as geometrical modelling and diagnostic modelling, still include kinematic, kinetic, thermodynamic model to analyse an environment to wait; Be based on emulated component to produce design and analysis, include craft to generate optimize, tool design is optimized, knife orbit is optimized, control code is optimized etc; Be based on interference of emulated production process collision to examine reach athletic contrail to examine, fictitious treatment, fictitious robot; Material machines figuration to emulate, include products plan, machine the analysis of field of figuration process temperature, stress field, flow field, treatment craft is optimized etc; The product is fictitious assemble, according to the appearance feature of products plan, precision feature, the assembly of product of imitate of three-dimensional bona fide process, the three-dimensional and true imitate that allows an user to control a product with interactive mode rigs a process, can assemble a gender of the product in order to examine. The layout design that this platform produces support the environment reachs fictitious production platform equipment long-range and fictitious test, enterprise produces compositive, product plan those who attemper to reach optimize, undertake producibility (Producibility) analysis. Basis of layout of fictitious production environment the craft feature of the product, manufacturing site, process the information such as equipment, imitate of three-dimensional bona fide produces an environment, allow an user to alter concerned position interactively, dynamic to production process undertakes imitate, statistic evaluates parameter accordingly, undertake optimizing to producing environmental position; The manufacturing facilities implementation that fictitious equipment market becomes different manufacturer to make is compositive provide the environment that prop up, compositive to differring plan undertakes comparative; Fictitious plan and attemper the craft feature according to the product, produce environmental position, the manufacturing process of imitate product, allow an user to revise production with interactive mode platoon Cheng and undertake trends attempers, statistic concerns evaluation parameter, work in order to find out the most satisfactory production plan and attemper plan. Make what dummy company platform is predicted be 21 centuries to create pattern adroitly, use the form of dummy company, the best configuration that waits in order to realize labour force, resource, capital, technology, management and information, this gives a company move brought a series of new technology requirements. Dummy company platform is offerred to be made adroitly can cooperate quality (Corporatability) analyses support. Dummy company works in coordination ground of design of ground of environmental support different, different is assembled, the environment that different ground checks, the different ground of the three-dimensional graph that is based on wide area newwork especially is control of fast and deferent, process, interactive wait for an environment. Combination of dummy industry trends reachs moving support environment, especially the system below INTERNET and INTRANET is compositive coordinate an environment with the task. Compositive and fictitious production platform should have the fictitious production platform that is based on PDM unified frame, unified data model, have open architecture. Support is fictitious the standard that production product data model provides model of data of overall situation of the product below fictitious production environment to define, a variety of product information (design information, geometry information, treatment information, assemble information to wait) the research environment that organizes means consistently. Be based on product data to manage (of PDM) fictitious make compositive technology offer fall in PDM environment, "Spare parts / the component is fictitious production platform " , " fictitious production platform " , " dummy company platform " environment of compositive technology research; The product development process that is based on PDM is compositive offer research PDM to use interface technology and process management technology, the process that realizes the product below fictitious production environment to develop complete lifecycle is compositive. Cent of this fictitious production environment is 4 parts, among them the environmental cent of fictitious production platform is cold working and hot-working two parts, hot-working part includes to support hot work (cast, punch) the fictitious production environment of figuration and analysis, for one local area network; Treatment of the geometrical modelling design that cold working part includes to support different ground to be designed in coordination and analysis, cutting reachs constructional fictitious production environment, it is another local area network; Data of the fictitious production environment that supports fictitious production platform, dummy company platform, product manages (PDM)(is implicit Taichun is made the same score in dummy company, be in charge of afore-mentioned 4 parts public data management and safeguard) also form a local area network, 3 local area networks are linked together through campus net, form the client that is a center with PDM / server annulus, deferent speed is 100 million / second. 5, virtual reality technology makes yield application in production a product is designed from the concept put in the market, namely the manufacturing cycle of the product can be divided by time order for the concept design, detailed design, treatment is made, check and groom / is safeguarded, VR technology can be in the effect with each in producing cycle entirely level main play of the product. Emphasize below talk about a few among them respects: Be based on what the product of VR technology develops VR to be enmeshed gender and alternant sex character make it is become use design new product and the capable tool that develop corresponding product line. Consider to design above all and construct the time that prototype of a new product needs. In designing a process, stylist should consider each aspects of the product, protect in order to satisfy certain security, ergonomics, easy dimension gender and assemble a standard. Accordingly, in designing a process, get strictly the limitation of production, time and charge. VR can be finished than CAD more functions, CAD considers a product only normally the geometrical feature of each stature component and mutual the geometric constraint between. And in VR, the condition that a variety of place that can mention above require to satisfy is compositive consider along with all the others in designing a process, we still can decrease appropriately child component amount, can put in proportion even shrink component dimension, this reduced design charge and archetypal and tectonic time greatly, further the goal that achieves product user to change. For example, in aircraft manufacturing industry, design the actor bad of plan to evaluate some plane, want to build a series of physics models that are the same as dimension with real product, undertake iteration modification on the model, this should cost a large number of time and charge, and in the past it is inevitable. American Boeing company applied VR technology to change method of this kind of design completely in aircraft design nowadays. Boeing company is design Boeing 777 planes, developed the name is " advanced computer graph uses a system interactively " fictitious environment, the technology that use VR builds the three-dimensional model that pilots a plane in this environment. Such stylist wear helmet monitor to be able to drive the roam in fictitious plane in this, check " plane " each function, in the meantime, whether does the installation place that still can check equipment accord with installation to ask to wait a moment. Final real airplane and design program photograph are compared, deviation is less than one thousandth inches, the joint of wing and airframe succeeds, shortened design workload of thousands of hours. Same, the product with large, complex other is like design of shipping, submarine to wait to be able to apply VR technology to achieve managing design charge and time to raise the target that designs successful ratio. Use VR technology to design a product to still have the following advantage: A when product user changes adverse effect is the variable number that increased a model, what also increased production with respect to corresponding ground is complex degree. VR can add grain and graphical information in the place that wants treatment, this is made to machinery have very good guide effect. Same process can assist training and directive generator, make they can be competent very quickly new job. The network of fictitious environment can undertake to the member of group of some project cooperation design, production trains. The member of these cooperative groups can be in same or in different factory, perhaps be the expert that comes from a school and foreign adviser even. Virtual reality technology designs the production system with medium current and numerous action to be able to press in production workshop give rank control arrangement cent is 4: Factory layer, workshop layer, production unit layer, equipment layer, among them the manufacturing efficiency of the utilization rate of the equipment in the design of workshop layer and workshop, product closely related, if the design is undeserved, can cause utilization rate of equipment and installations the free time that crop of low, workshop cannot satisfy personnel of user demand, operation is much. So, how to design production workshop reasonably, those who assure it is efficient moving is a very serious problem. Use VR technology to be able to enhance the feasibility of the design, effectiveness. The main task that the workshop designs is a production plan of equipment, cutting tool, clamping apparatus, workpiece, production, attemper organic ground organizes the factor of production such as sheet. In the initial phase that the workshop designs, architect basis user demand, the type of facilities of the mode of the functional requirement of affirmatory workshop, workshop, main treatment, cutting tool and clamping apparatus and amount, put forward a group to await choose design plan. The action of VR helps program of architect evaluation, modification design namely, get optimal result. In detailed design phase, the architect finishs unit to each composition complete description, those who apply VR modelling technology to create each compositive unit is fictitious express, keep abreast of and decorate whole workshop with these fictitious unit, still can add among them guide automatically leave the workshop such as car, robot, storehouse commonly used equipment. The architect wears helmet monitor to be able to cross at fictitious workshop in, he is OK open any among them equipment, observation runs a condition, always his thinkable detects the condition can see instantly detect result. He is OK still ground of seesaw when inspect pattern amends design plan, move for instance the position of equipment, increase / to delete a number of equipment, this kind " be wanted what to see namely " the successful ratio that designed means to improve a design greatly. What VR technology is producing the application on scheduling to produce scheduling is visible decision-making to making it is extremely useful, but at present it still fails to come true completely. Use VR technology, but will thousands of product, by tens of thousands component and a lot of other factor of production are visible, assistant planner is evaluated better, the choice produces a plan. The picture that the computer produces can change the cerebrum burden of planner their organic system, this accelerated working process. Manufacturing plan data becomes stereo or multidimensional graph, can express complex in-house concern. But the issue is not so simple, cannot express the concern between every kinds of data and data only simply with some kind of graph, can generate only otherwise desultorily image. Before scale, want to undertake visual abstraction first, a kind of data is represented with a kind of body on 2 dimension plane, this kind of body wants to satisfy: (1) supportive vision perception; (2) so that,tectonic and effective vision expresses the explanation at all sorts of administrative levels; (3) make sure result image wants facilitating commerce to the manager understands and be used. 6, the design that uses fictitious production technology to be able to bring following benefit to provide a key to the enterprise and the influence message that run decision-making opposite to produce cost, cycle and ability, so that handle product function and the balance between danger of production cost, manufacturing schedule zephyr correctly, make correct decision-making; Improve the efficiency that produces process development, can optimize the design that produces a system according to the characteristic of the product; Through producing the emulation of the plan, optimize resource use, shorten production is periodic, implementation is flexible make and make adroitly; Can amend products plan according to the requirement of the user, make in time quote and assure date of delivery. 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