Face the non-traditional machining technology that makes quickly

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The 4 big crucial fields that production technology is the same as information science, material science, biology science to be considered as to promote human civilization and development together [1] . As the formation of the process of global economic integration and globalization market, the production of any production enterprises must face the intense competition that comes from a whole world with management activity. Whether with the shortest date of delivery (Time) , best quality (the cost of Quality) , lowest (Cost) , first-rate serves (Service) will answer changeful the market demand with diversification, will become manufacturing industry to bilk the key with living. Mechanical production development already grew by a craft up to now for an engineering science, what what it goes after is not pure already it is highest precision, however the optimal combination of precision, cost and efficiency, so, forming brand-new fast production mode. Non-traditional machining is all sorts of using of physics, the floorboard of chemical energy purify or the treatment method that add material to design a requirement in order to obtain a part. Because these machine treatment mechanism of the method with deliquescent, fused, aerification, come off give priority to, and majority is machined to be not a contact, mix to material of tall hardness, tall tenacity accordingly spare parts of complex form face, low stiffness is the treatment method that cannot replace, the strong complement that also is pair of traditional machining methods and outspread, already became the indispensable technical content in mechanical production domain. Current, this one technology is being sided with automation, flexible change, nicety is changed, compositive change, intelligence is changed and optimization way develops, in some craft are perfected ceaselessly and already finalized the design while, new non-traditional machining technology is ceaseless emerge in large numbers, if frit of production technology of fast original shape, plasma shoots figuration engineering technology, online electroanalysis technology of mirror grinding of nap emery wheel, fact becomes a technology of control electrochemistry machining, three-dimensional model antrum is simple technology of mill of electric spark copy, electric spark mixes electrode numerical control powdery bedding face accumulates lens face processing technique, magnetic force is abrade technology and. On the foundation that new non-traditional machining technology is the non-traditional machining technology in the tradition, combine with microelectronics technology development of material, control to rise cheek by jowl, answer to answer market demand quickly as the product, forming face the new system of non-traditional machining technology that makes quickly. Of technology of 1 non-traditional machining form, research current situation and development trend 1.

Of technology of 1 non-traditional machining form nearly 229 years to come, development of non-traditional machining technology is rapid, its connotation is very extensive already and rich. 1.

The microcosmic physics procedure that technology of 2 artificial intelligence established a model to establish fundamental non-traditional machining for rule of non-traditional machining craft is very sophisticated, often involve a lot of field such as electromagnetism field, thermodynamic, hydromechanical, electrochemistry, the academic research that its machine mechanism is extremely difficult, be conveyed very hard normally with simple analytic type. In recent years, although each country scholar used all sorts of theory to have thorough research to different non-traditional machining technique, gained remarkable academic success, but still have certain space from mensurable actual application. The treatment that uses place of method of non-traditional machining of avery kind of to obtain however has its law between precision and exterior quality and treatment condition parameter. Accordingly, the experimental statistic method that often uses research tradition cutting to machine mechanism at present will know the craft rule of non-traditional machining, so that apply actually, but still lack systematization. Suffer its to restrict, at present the craft parameter of non-traditional machining can be chosen by experience only, still implement optimization and automation hard, for example, the craft of the heavy treatment that enter type of electrode of electric spark figuration, it is in hold sum total of machine tool of electric spark figuration get applied extensively in treatment of the is not machine tool of form cutting of numerical control electric spark and larger size mould of 95% above antrum. Although already the scholar began a few research to its CAD, CAPP and CAM principle, obtained a few positive result, but the lack as a result of technical data, the CAD/CAM system that still has no mature commercialization comes out. What can use handmade method or partial have the aid of to make complex electrode at CAD modelling, part only normally is three-dimensional model face data. As ambiguous maths, nerve yuan the maturity of a variety of artificial intelligence technologies such as network and expert system develops, the experimental model such as the precision that people begins to try to use this one technology to build the ration between treatment effect and treatment condition to change, efficiency, economy, got abecedarian positive result. Accordingly, build a model through the experiment, typical treatment example and treatment experience serve as intellectual memory to rise, establish rule of craft of descriptive non-traditional machining but the condition of expansibility open system is already mature. Machine the computer simulation of process to begin non-traditional machining further, the procedure that should select a part with artificial intelligence and fictitious treatment lay a foundation. 1.

Moving the stability that 3 intelligence control will become the control strategy with non-traditional machining main field to machine process and treatment facilities, reliably, efficiently is the essential condition that non-traditional machining engineering technology gets used to to make a system quickly. But because method of most non-traditional machining is used " with Rou Kegang " blame contact machines a mechanism, treatment is accompanying physics, chemical process to undertake, the microcosmic process that its machine is very complex, the mathematical model that still cannot decide with up to now will describe. And undertake as what machine a process, treatment condition still can produce bigger change sometimes, cause fabricating characteristics to let time and change. Because this is in,the model inaccuracy that the model belongs to in controlling theory is decided nonlinear when change system, use classic control theory and the method with contemporary academic control very hard to achieve ideal control result. Come for years people has tried a lot of kinds from adaptive control strategy, obtained very great progress. But the performance that satisfaction still achieves hard below the circumstance that changes substantially in treatment condition. In recent years, people diverts more attention to the intelligence such as ambiguous control, nerve control to pilot studies and apply, the process that machines in electric spark form cutting and cut of electric spark line controlled a respect to obtain a breakthrough, use successfully already on high-grade machine tool of abroad. It can choose best parameter automatically, monitor treatment process automatically, realize control of automation, optimization. Can be opposite with vogue ambiguous controller introduces get used to a function oneself or be united in wedlock with photograph of technology of artificial nerve network, make its have function of self-study be used to, achieve thereby raise treatment rate, stability machines a process, reduce the goal that depends on to handlers technology. Because this kind controls strategy to use the method of activity of imitate mankind intelligence, can allow a system greatly existence uncertainty, nonlinear the denaturation when mixing. Can foreknow, it will be in the near future in the control of first selection of non-traditional machining domain is politic. Current, the difference with the product very bigger than returning existence look that the device of homebred non-traditional machining that our country uses extensively is the same as abroad. The electric spark forming machine that for instance our country produces is 80 time medium-term levels of foreign only, often machine quality and efficiency to ensure, the handlers that needs to have experience undertakes adjust and intervening ceaselessly in machining a process. 1.

The 80 age of influence   that 4 burgeoning non-traditional machining technologies produce the manufacturing pattern to manufacturing industry profundity end, produced technologies of a batch of new-style efficient non-traditional machining. Although be opposite at present,the research of the mechanism of these processing technique and application works in the ascendant, but still do not have from go up at all master its craft character. However these burgeoning non-traditional machining technologies are right already the effect that the manufacturing mode of whole manufacturing industry produced profundity, especially following technology, its use the capacity that will increase spare parts and mould to be made quickly significantly extensively. (Technology of 1) fast figuration (RP&M) the principle that used material accumulation take shape, broke through a tradition go material law and change model law a lot of limitation of machining, below the situation that does not need tool or mould, can make an aleatoric and complex form quickly have the three-dimensional and hypostatic model of particular function or part again. Heretofore, mature quite and commercial already RP&M figuration technology has stereo smooth model (SLA) , laser is alternative agglomeration (SLS) , statified and hypostatic make (LOM) , melt deposit is made (FDM) and three-dimensional presswork (3D-P) etc [3] . These technologies are divided at present outside be being used at making blueprint paper or CAD model three-dimensional and hypostatic model quickly, the mould waits to be made quickly in the model that note model, punch model, mould, make metallic part quickly, spare parts of micro computer instrument makes the research that waits for a respect also gain a success ceaselessly. But the respective advantage that how makes full use of to become form technology and technology of other non-traditional machining quickly, learn from others's strong points to offset his weakness in precision and efficiency respect, still need photograph of as of all kinds as other craft to be united in wedlock, development gives assorted engineering technology, realize the fast high accuracy of metallic spare parts and mould to make. (2) plasma frit shoots figuration engineering technology it is with plasma efflux is heat source, make below all sorts of specific craft requirements data collection forms the spare parts of form to produce a method. Have temperature as a result of plasma efflux tall, can fused all material; Eject rate is rapid, can gift frit bead with high kinetic energy; Craft parameter is adjusted convenient, can achieve higher deposition rate; Can add laziness to protect gas to make an interior in order to assure wait for a series of advantages without foreign matter, especially the material form such as alloy of high melting point of porcelain of comfortable Yu Tao, composite material, tall hardness is complex Bao Bi make quickly, applied perspective is very wide. But still be in to the research of this one technology at present start level [4] . (3) is online electroanalysis nap emery wheel (ELID) mirror grinding technology it is to use electroanalysis infirmly the zincous and deliquescent phenomenon in the process, right cast-iron wait for emery wheel of metallic bond diamond to undertake online electroanalysis nap. Via the emery wheel of nap, not only the surface is rectified to make the same score, and the oxidation film layer that still forms certain ply. When emery wheel high speed rotates, this film layer chafes or scrape is machined the surface, realize hard fragile data the grinding of slick surface, or the ELID abrade polish that often machines pressure surely (ELID-lap) [5] , electroanalysis among them the key that the parameter that build fighting spirit is influence treatment quality. Basically the lens face treatment that is aimed at material of silicon crystal, glass, pottery and porcelain and titanium alloy has current research, the test that still requires a system will perfect promotion this one engineering technology. This technology realizes efficient nicety and treatment of lens face unifinication to have very wide application perspective in hard fragile data and metallic spare parts. (A technology of control electrochemistry machining changes when 4) it is in using electrochemistry machining, deliquescent electric field realizes electrochemistry easily characteristic of pilot of real time computer, surface of spare parts of the metal in realizing treatment process everywhere selectively purify, in order to achieve the compound treatment method of surface roughness of tall geometry precision, low surface [6] . Its are the biggest the characteristic is the unifinication that the size shape nicety that can realize metallic spare parts is machined and makes treatment solely, improve productivity significantly. This one technology is in the accurate treatment of the spare parts such as roller of gear of hard tooth flank, long form, have very wide application perspective. At present this technology machines the application of the respect to consider to still undertaking in nicety of complex curved surface. (5) is three-dimensional model antrum is simple electric spark of electrode numerical control copy mill it is the technology that is machined a bound to pay close attention to generally all the time by report, ever began a lot of research to work. But suffer electrode loss and its compensatory complexity, especially loss of pointed part part is severe the limitation that waits for a problem, will more than 10 years did not obtain significant progress from beginning to end. Produce a technology to consider to be in small small-sized antrum till university of near future Tokyo processing technique and waited for loss theory respect to obtain major breakthrough [7] , just make the actual application of this one technology becomes a possibility, got abecedarian experiment test and verify. According to investigating statistic, the production cycle of electrode of common electric spark form cutting and cost constitute a pattern about 50% of total production cycle and cost. Accordingly, the wide application of this one technology can save the production charge of many complex form electrode and time, perspective is wide. Nextpage     (6) electric spark mixes powdery bedding face to accumulate lens face processing technique it is to use the electric powder with be joined certain in fluid of electric spark job to discharge in order to increase clearance, make discharge nods dispersive strategy to come true. It can machine a surface roughness to not be more than Rmax0 conveniently.

The surface of 8 μ M. Current, sha Di restrains a company, company of electric machinery of 3 water chestnut already developed the phone that uses this one technology to machine a machine tool, but still lack engineering technology compasses to allow, and should control corrode of the treatment that mix pink strictly to divide an amount, can affect exterior flatness otherwise. In our country university of industry of haing Er guest and Dalian manage the research that is versed in the university also is pursueing this technology, obtained abecedarian positive result [8] . Normally mould surface surface roughness improves one grade, its service life can rise 50% , but because the mould is three-dimensional model antrum itself form is complex, polishing process implements automation hard, still be versed in with the hand exercise is given priority to at present. According to data introduction, the workload of mould polish occupies a mould to make the 1/3 of total workload about. Accordingly, the maturity of this one technology is sure to improve the efficiency that mould antrum machines greatly. (7) magnetism bead is abrade technology it is to use magnetic field to exceed those who be apart from conductance of action tall magnetism to come loose bead body abrasive will realize complex curved surface of abrade polish, its outstanding advantage is need not control strictly wheelhead and by the relative position between polishing surface, implement polishing automation easily, and polishing tool structure is simple, facility cost is low. Agree with especially Bao Bi, petty, inside the polish of sunken spare parts. The main problem that exists at present is efficiency too low, the magnetic abrasive constituent that makes through agglomeration or chemical felt at the same time is inhomogenous, the adhesion of abrasive and magnetic material is not strong, life is low [9] . The place on put together is narrated, the position of non-traditional machining technology is more and more significant, already made modern production technology impartible cut main component. Accordingly, its development and the formation that perfect pair of whole and fast production systems are having decisive effect. But as a result of long-term since too dispersive to the research of this one domain, devoid systematization, make method of existing a lot of kinds of non-traditional machining far the requirement that cannot get used to production process informatization, in bringing into fast production system very hard. Accordingly, be necessary to study those new-style non-traditional machining technique deep, exploration high accuracy, efficient compound reach assorted engineering technology, choose application to be mixed extensively have representative non-traditional machining method, begin the research that faces the non-traditional machining technology that makes quickly. 2 face the base of non-traditional machining technology that creates quickly 2.

1 face the system of non-traditional machining technology that makes quickly to face the new system of non-traditional machining technology that makes quickly, it is the non-traditional machining technology in the tradition and material technology, control technology, microelectronics technology and computer technology close together union, and as answer market demand work up quickly, its system is formed. 2.

2 be based on statified production thought, the theory of electric treatment craft that uses simple tool and technology electroanalysis commonly, the figure that form cutting of electric spark, ultrasonic uses appearance to copy principle general tool duplicates to go up to workpiece. Want to receive the three-dimensional form of certain precision, make as identical as its appearance, protruding with respect to need sunken contrary tool, fluid of job of strict control flows mediumly in treatment clearance distributing. To save the production charge of many complex form tool and time, brief chemical industry makes the flow of fluid control, can use the tool of simple appearance, follow the figuration campaign that numerical control milling relies on a machine tool in that way will machine piece complex and three-dimensional model the new-style report of the face machines engineering technology. This must solve difficult problem of following a few technologies: ① realizes the stable control that machines a process; ② has definite material purify pattern and tool loss law; ③ realizes process to build a model; ④ development goes corresponding CAD/CAM software. Simplify for effective ground the complexity of the problem, what will use similar and fast take shape is statified production treatment mode, control each mental allowance strictly, ensure the tool has underside to realize treatment only, and flank does not participate in treatment, make thereby complex three-dimensional model a series of plane machine translate into of face treatment problem problem. 2.

3 be based on electric field control, deliquescent the compound treatment method that is united in wedlock with cutting photograph and technology are based on electric field control, deliquescent the compound processing technique that combines with cutting photograph, can realize efficient smooth whole, efficient accurate form cutting, or light makes the unifinication treatment that reachs accurate figuration. Generally speaking, precision of treatment of grinding of nicety of fine emery wheel is tall, but emery wheel jams not easy nap, compensation of loss of the emery wheel when machining curved surface is difficult also, and grinding muscularity is deteriorated by treatment surface easy generation layer, affect the exterior quality of the spare parts; Under photograph comparing, electrochemistry is deliquescent although treatment precision is low, but efficiency is tall, nonexistent tool loss and without cutting force, good by quality of surface of treatment spare parts; And medicinal powder bead body is abrade control easily as a result of treatment pressure, treatment surface quality is accordingly good, but plastic ability is poor, and efficiency is low. Accordingly, with passivity working fluid is ligament, combinative electric field controls strategy, explore the compound method of these craft, with producing its respective advantage adequately, can develop an appearance of complex curved surface and processing technique of smooth whole unifinication. Specific include electrochemistry machinery compound treatment, chemical machining, supersonic discharge is compound treatment, a control, magnetic field changes when additional electrochemistry and electrochemistry machinery are complex processing technique, a pilot changes to electroanalysis when processing technique of grinding of online nap emery wheel, the compound processing technique with a control electrochemistry and magnetism abrade bead changes to wait when. 2.

4 three-dimensional model when the accurate figuration of antrum and spare parts of finish machining of electric spark of technology of unifinication of treatment of lens face electric spark, need uses lesser discharge energy and treatment space. Should machine so when the area is larger, larger parasitism electric capacity can be formed between workpiece and electrode, bring about easy generation to center discharge phenomenon, affect treatment quality of the surface. Use here the method with imperceptible and pulverous solid is added in fluid of common kerosene job, will increase finish machining extremely span leaves, reduce the capacitance effect, dispersive sex that increases discharge passageway. Can make discharge bits thereby efficiency of stability of good, discharge, treatment rises, reduce the surface roughness that machines the surface effectively. Use fluid of the job that mix pink to still can form the film with taller hardness in workpiece surface at the same time, raise exterior hardness and wearability. Implementation is three-dimensional model the accurate figuration of antrum and unifinication of treatment of lens face electric spark. 2.

The 5 non-traditional machining methods that are based on RP technology and technology, and the significant step that the non-traditional machining craft that faces RP technology constitutes a technology to already became complex original shape and mould to make into form technology quickly, changing deeply with its peculiar production philosophic theory whole production field, production system of future needs comprehensive data growth is made machine two kinds of principles with purify, make of the spare parts in order to come true quickly, make special material (like functional gradient material) make of the spare parts directly become a possibility, since making people long-term, imagine will design by function of mechanical, electromagnetism make new material spare parts turn into reality. This should explore spray of fast figuration technology and electroform, electric arc, plasma spray, plasma frit to shoot figuration, pouring, nicety to cast, the assorted engineering technology of the non-traditional machining method such as electric spark, make what expect for special performance ability spare parts, metal, metalloid spare parts and metal pattern are provided especially quickly provide brand-new technical measure. (1) uses RP technology directly, combine corresponding aftertreatment craft or fast and accurate foundry technology, the method of production workpiece or mould: · creates the method of metallic spare parts directly: Use metallic powder agglomeration (SLS) the prototype that makes, undertake metallic infiltration is handled directly, form metallic spare parts or metallic mould; · creates the method of metalloid spare parts directly: Use SLA, FDM or LOM method, direct production colophony, ABS plastic or ligneous workpiece or mould; · generates colophony sand mold directly or disappear modular method: Make directly with SLS method cast used resin sand mold or disappear wax-pattern, the fast nicety that implements a part is cast. (2) is based on RP prototype, combine corresponding non-traditional machining technology, produce the method of workpiece or mould secondhand: · is based on RP prototype, shoot figuration photograph to combine the form such as fast production metal, pottery and porcelain with electroform craft, plasma frit complex Bao Bi engineering technology; · is based on RP prototype, the engineering technology of the fast production metal that with spray of electroform craft, metal, pottery and porcelain photograph of besmear Fu craft combines or mould of pottery and porcelain; · is based on RP prototype, pouring silicon balata, epoxy resin or get together the weak data such as ammoniac fat, create soft pattern directly. (3) is based on RP prototype, combine corresponding non-traditional machining technology, make the electrode that report machines quickly, realize the form cutting of fast electric spark of complex part: · brushs layer of besmear electric conduction on the master mold that prototype or prototype design, again electroform or eletroplate form metal electrode; · undertakes on prototype metallic cold spray forms metal electrode directly; · uses archetypal production master mold, enrich powder, again squeezing ramming agglomeration forms electrode; · fills black lead inside the master mold that prototype designs pink and stick the compound that receives a dose, solidify forms black lead electrode; · fills the mixture of epoxy resin and carborundum pink inside the master mold that prototype designs, form abrade standard above all, go up in special and oscillatory muller again abrade give black lead electrode. (4) is based on the accumulation figuration principle of RP technology, comfortable the technology of new-style non-traditional machining that makes at figuration of spare parts of functional gradient material. 2.

The systems of 6 fast production technology that are based on non-traditional machining craft differ as a result of the mechanism of treatment, all sorts of non-traditional machining methods have respective advantage and scope of application. Below fast production environment, how be chosen correctly and apply all sorts of non-traditional machining methods to depend on the understanding degree of all sorts of pair of treatment methods. Accordingly, should the craft such as the precision character that the system sums up all sorts of non-traditional machining, exterior quality character and efficiency is academic, process of exploration non-traditional machining controls politic implementation to stabilize pilot by what differ general theory and method. Use artificial intelligence tool, build library of non-traditional machining technical data and knowledge base, realize the computer simulation of typical craft. Make make information and the depart of production process thereby, form non-traditional machining fictitious production environment, make before the architect is being machined can the production result of imitate product. The position of technology of 3 conclusion non-traditional machining is more and more significant, its development and the formation that perfect pair of whole and fast production systems are having decisive effect. The method of a lot of kinds of non-traditional machining that has however is far the requirement that cannot get used to production process informatization, get used to the demand that creates quickly very hard. Accordingly, be necessary to sum up the base of non-traditional machining technology that already finalized the design to go up in the system, develop and perfect technologies of those far-reaching new-style non-traditional machining, its study in development while the craft rule and craft character, theory that build a model and method and intelligence control a technology, what explore efficient, high accuracy mainly is compound reach its to combine engineering technology: ① is based on statified the theory of production thought, electric treatment craft that uses simple tool and technical base; ② is based on electric field control, deliquescent the compound treatment method that is united in wedlock with cutting photograph and technical base; ③ is three-dimensional model the accurate figuration of antrum and base of technology of unifinication of treatment of lens face electric spark; ④ is based on the non-traditional machining method of RP technology and technology, reach the non-traditional machining craft that faces RP technology to combine a technology; ⑤ is based on the system of fast production technology of non-traditional machining craft, form face the system of non-traditional machining engineering technology that makes quickly. This makes technical standard to improving our country, stimulative economy and progress of science and technology have important sense. CNC Milling